Sigge Fridulfson. Sigge Fridulson (French archive).
Sigge Fridolfsson. Fridolphson (German). Fridulfsson.
First King of Sweden; border blurring into Norway.
A Greater Caesar?
Who was he? How is cultural memory shaped by victor-written and victor-shaped records, tales.
whose descendants later returned
and beyond as Viking traders -- and raiders.
Here we track a question: Is there a man behind the Odin who morphed into Nordic mythology. There is too much history to put everything in a curriculum for our children and ourselves, but some people and events deserve a more prominent place. Old stories hold that one Sigge Fridulfson became the first King of Sweden lands after leading his people from, was it the Caucasus, or the Don; and adopted the name Odin so the indigenous people would worship or at least accept him. Start with the Heimskringla, The Ynglinga Saga, Icelandic, see "the chief called Odin" at section 2 ff, and all he oversaw and did, sections 6-7 ff, including laws, at section 8, at ://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/heim/02ynglga.htm/.
Tales say that the chief was Sigge Fridulfson who took the name of the god Odin when he led his very bright group into the North from the Caucasus in about 100 BC, others say 200AD and later (300-450), and some track the group back to refugees from Troy, Thrace, and Jephtha son of Noah in the OT, and other ancestors of even Elvis, oh yes. Some, who obviously are joking claim as an ancestor the Norse Giantess nursed by the Cow at Creation, and who married Fridulph Sr. and gave birth to son of Fridulf or Sigge Fridulfson. Beware the genealogy sites if you are credulous.
The point is, however, that this Sigge was brilliant. He arguably surpassed Caesar in that all Caesar did was lead armies and take over existing politics. He made use of the tools already at his disposal, and brilliantly. Sigge Fridulfson was a leader of people on the move, having defended well against Caesar in the Caucasus frontiers, simply heading north instead of coping with them. Creative as well as an administrator, implementer; and if we take seriously his establishment of systems of adjudication and religion (his form of multi-deism lasted a thousand years, is that so?), he can be seen as inspirational as "incarnations" of other religious cultural concepts. Is that so? Maybe. Legend roots in fact. Caucasus origin of Swedes. What else.
Long footnotes are here: These roughly lay out our main sources so far, with excerpts.
B. Tracking back: The context of a migration: Who, from where, to where, and why
Rome had been getting bothersome, so Sigge and friends -- being advanced in arts and skills -- left, and after standing up well against them. The tactic of adopting the name worked. The Swedes of old considered themselves descended from Odin, as in a sense they were; and promptly left out any reference to Sigge Fridulfson. The story of Odin stuck, not the name of Sigge who used the name. Is that so? What corroborates that, or is all too lost in legend and mist.
C. Why Explore this particular legend? The man as leader
Brilliant. The equivalent of a Caesar, to install his sons on so many thrones as are claimed, to start Runes, to lay out wise laws, to be so canny as to take on the name of a god, Odin, so that worshipers of Odin in the North would follow him. That worked so well that people forgot who he, Sigge, was. Instead, they saw themselves as descended from Odin the god -- concepts blur. Set up laws, system of justice, runes, eloquent.
D. Sources of Information; Difficulties in the Fog
Summary: We are finding more sources daily, many from 19th Century historian sources when people had time to research myths and legends and history, as best they could, and people were interested: and who actually name this Sigge Fridulfson, or Sigge Fridulsson, or Sigge son of Fridulph or Sigge Fridulson. Others skip the step of Sigge adopting the deity's name, drop the given name, and adopt the version of the legend by which the ancient Swedes and others in the North simply consider themselves descended from the god Odin (Sigge took the name Odin to ease his way into hearts and minds).
Sigge Fridulfson is said in tales to have been the leader of the Asar peoples in their migration to the North, a group superior in ingenuity and in the arts as compared to other peoples north of the Roman areas.
Sigge Fridulfson is found in legend and corroborations; but remains a virtual unknown except to people on genealogical sites who claim him and repeat each other without verification sources. If this was a real person, he would be as great as Caesar, given what he accomplished. But without contemporary cultural linguistic professionals writing it all down, as Caesar had, Sigge got lost. Is that so? His Runes could not narrate with the same clarity as the Roman and Greek Alphabets.
Skills: administration, leadership, politics, laws. See FN 3-5
- Nom d'homme. Adopting Odin's identity. Smart. What's your name? I am Odin. Odin? Bow down! Bow down! Like Ulysses: What is your name, asks Cyclops. I am No Man, answers Ulysses. And the Cyclops runs out, blinded, into the community, accusing No Man of the deed. Nom d'homme. Like politicians claiming to protect liberties, while pocketing billions from those who think they are protecting their "liberties" by giving anonymous sources money, and losing it to corporations all the while, is that so? Ageless. Tactics. Spin. Power. Deify by association. Propaganda tactic through the centuries.
Deify by association. A propaganda technique Rove would be proud of. Inculcate by association. Odin and treatment of Odin in the Ynglinge Saga. Read this site slowly - at this site looking at verifying parts of the Ynglinga Saga, ://mshwan1.livejournal.com/1129.html/ This will take more time.
The Ynglinge Saga, and the Ynglinga kings -- treats Odin as a historical person, see ://idrisi.narod.ru/volvewitch.htm; and the chronology gets even more fogged with connecting him with a Prince of Troy. Legends. Mixed traditions. Return again.
1. Who, Where, Why: The Asar People.
Asar, Aes: is that the spelling of Asa, the "Aes" we are looking for? Black Sea, Sea of Asov, largely matrilineal,
Sigge Fridulfson led the Asar, says our primary research site so far -- from 1844 -- The History of Sweden by Anders Fryxell. Fryxell claims that Sigge and group came from the Caucasus.
According to that old historian, Fryxell, Sigge and the Asars would not succumb to the Roman forces in 100 BC or so, but simply moved north, eventually to Sweden. Probably in disgust. More similarities with linguistics: Aes, Aesir, Asa, Asen, Aesgard, Asgard, Asaheim. Asar could mean Asian, and the location there gets more specific in Fryxell: the Caucasus. Asaland (Asia) or Aesir (a group of the gods, this one including Odin, another being the Vanir, and wars between the Aesir and the Vanir, etc)
Going further, the Asars are refugees from old Troy, landing and settling in Colchis, the Caucasus, says History of the Swedish People, ://www.osterholm.info/swedes.html/ Take a look. Then go back further, to Real Origins: Creation in the Norse view, see Origins, the Norse View: Who Were Odin's Parents? See the Sagas, Snorri, Icelandic by that time. These tales are interconnected.
The Aes: Other roots. Thrace.
Are these the same as the Asar as it is spelled in the Fryxell Swedish History?
We do find connections between a Thracian group known as the Aes, who are said to be ancestors of the Swedes. See http://www.osterholm.info/thracian.html / Romans called them Thirasians. This site takes the roots of Swedes farther back than most of us are ready for (Noah's son Japheth, ancestor of Indo-Europeans), but why not consider? And Trojan Aes. Is this tracking just nationalism or following reasonable dots? Slavs came later, the site says, in the 6th Century. And the Svear and Daner people in the Balkans, see http://www.osterholm.info/swedes.html/
Population group: There is the Svaneti in the Caucasus, even now. There were other groups, but this looks closest in word roots. Find the Svaneti, in Svanetia, where the Svans live, a Geogeian population. Svans? Svedes? We are not scholars. Soanes to Szabo. A high, mountain-and-gorge area, conifers. Wikipedia says that the Svan language is unwritten, see ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svaneti/ That Wikipedia section on history only starts with 552 AD. Suomi - Finland.
Other similar roots --
Svenska. Sweden. See Svenska at ://www.yawiktionary.com/s/1148347501881.html There!
This area of the Caucasus. The old Colchis. Known as Suaneti, see Svaneti History at ://www.experiencefestival.com/svaneti_-_history/ Aeetes hung the Golden Fleece until Jason grabbed it, Medea, the Argonauts, Prometheus chained to the cliff with vultures eating his liver because he gave fire to mankind, Amazons as originating in Colchis -- references that could establish why the first sources we found reported the superiority of the group in arts and other ways.
Sometimes it is best to go to an overview, like Wikipedia. Try Sigtuna, the area near Upsala where there are antiquities. There find people called "Asaland" people, and Sigtun, but no Sigge Fridulfson -- just the name of Odin as though the god himself was there, and not just a smart people-mover like Sigge. A man who called himself Odin for political purposes, if that is so, is a different kind of legend. Wikipedia needs help here, and we aren't in a position to give it except to point out issues. If scholars have considered the man Sigge and rejected any basis, we would like to know where that it. Look up "Fornsigtuna". Near old Uppsala, or Upsala. Near Stockholm.
What sources before the 19th Century are there?
1. Source: The History of Sweden by Anders Fryxell. This comes in 3 volumes: early to 1060 or so (heathen, say those who use "Christianity" as the Measure of Superiority and all else is Inferoior, or panoply deism, or multi-deism say we), middle 1060-1520 or so (Catholic) and later 1520-present. (Lutheran) Fryxell was a scholar and historian in Stockholm. Read his description at History of Sweden beginning at page 9 of the site for Sigge as a named leader, and the pages before and after for context and story. Oldest recorded we see so far (we speak no Swedish) --
See The History of Sweden from 1844 ata free download, New York Public Library, at http://www.archive.org/details/historysweden01fryxgoog; or at this site, that oddly we can only access by a search for King Inge the Younger History of Sweden. Why is that? Google won't produce results for Sigge Frudulfson directly, in its own google book presentation, unless you look for King Inge? Find out at
Because we could not access that site except sideways (with a search for later kings, Kings Inge Elder and Younger), we reproduce the Sigge Fridulfson portion here. See FN 1.
Details at FN 1
What were Fryxell's sources for old stories? Older written stories? That would take a Swedish linguist. Please to to Stockholm and find out.
2. Source: Next oldest: French archive. Archive des missions scientifique et litteraire, by France's Commission of the same name, fair use from page 82: In summary it is stated: that (we are paraphrasing here, see FN 2)
- from greatest antiquity,
- travelers and merchants
- came from the Caucasus up the Volga and Dnieper,
- to mix with northern peoples, that
- they (Goths and Swedes, is that it?) drove back the Lapps or other unknowns in the north, and
- came to establish themselves in the middle of the peninsula; and
- later, about a century before Jesus Christ, the Adzes,
- from the Gothic race, came to their former compatriots who accepted them with benevolence; \
- their chief was Sigge Fridulfson,
- which took the name of Odin and
- based on the edges of Lake Maelar
- the town of Sigtuna, religious and royal metropolis for worship and government that he wanted to establish.
We cannot yet translate, but the name Sigge Fridulsson (Fridulfson?) is mentioned in connection with Sigtuna, at ://books.google.com/books?id=xyNCAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA582&lpg=PA582&dq=sigge+fridulsson&source=bl&ots=IZWvC88lS3&sig=hExWGSV-SmYBdyMZlSIQY0Px8q8&hl=en&ei=Os0XTbWKFsSp8Aa8kb36DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=sigge%20fridulsson&f=false
4. Source -- Further 19th Century : Outlines of Universal History: In three parts; with a copious index to each. By Joseph J. Reid. See FN 4 -- just found. Look at the detail here about Sigge Fridulsson. Amazing. Not picked up anywhere else, just slogging through search and search, and finally just honing in on Sigtuna, the place near Upsala where he hunkered down. Better than Caesar, this one.
We put in at FN 4 a fair use quotation from the larger work, the entire book, to show in this small part how influential this Sigge Fridulfson was and should be still.
5. Source -- Yet another 19th Century: See FN 5 for The Westminster Review, 1845, Vols 43-33 at pages 190, 192, 197 ff -- ://books.google.com/books?id=RT6gAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA192&lpg=RA1-PA192&dq=sigge+fridulfson&source=bl&ots=uzhCSK1aGu&sig=jbz8dhXAISEIXqG08Ry9GryXP3I&hl=en&ei=Q48YTcvdNsqr8AaBp6z-DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=sigge%20fridulfson&f=false
The section on Scandinavia begins at page 185. Sources cited: from 1822 and 1844 at page 185.
Copyright. Sources needed for analysis. Here, we use the limited but lots approach. Fair use for analytical purposes, not claiming them as one's own creation. Changes in form to assist the analysis. For example, The more we read, the less Caesar becomes. All you did, Julius, was use the tools already available to you, including written narrative capability beyond the Rune. What did you invent, do, that was new? We need to be able to refer to sources to test ideas like that.
7. Difficulties with Sources
- Difficulties with Linguistics.
Word similarities: As to geographical connections, cultural connections, there are similarities between the Indo-European root, even Sanskrit, and the Norse. For this so far we only have looked at the etymology section of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86sir/ That last is the way to get in AEsir when the AE are joined, is that so?
- Difficulties with Tracking a name
But is it still fair to ask, isn't that a naming form later, to signify a father as being Fridul? If the group was from the Caucasus and matrilineal, as may be, would then Frid in the early millennium be female, the mother.
Look up Fridul: perhaps that is found in the Bahai, but if this combination of syllables is related to Islam, then it is too much later than the Sigge Fridulfson we are trying to find. See ://bahaistudies.net/bahaiworks/promiseofallages027828mbp.pdf
Fridulf, Fridolf, etc. Freydolf, Friedulf, now Fridulph.
Fridolf, as a baby name, means peaceful wolf, with old English origins, says ://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/1/Fridolf/ Old English: Think roots in the Saxon, Angle invaders. Germanic, connections to the countries further north, but Charlemagne could not cross the line north. Look up Caucasus history: at http://armenianhouse.org/villari/caucasus/caucasus-history.html/ Nothing we see.
Here, did the name of Sigge Fridulfson become detached from recorded tales because
a) it has no significant basis; or
b) such an illustrious figure contradicts the dogma of the day; and/or
c) adopting the ame of a god, Odin, predictably eclipsed the real name of a man.
What is the nom d'homme when compared with a nom de dieu. An illustrious adversary, who got away, makes the claim to greatness of the ones in power, less great. A common western flaw: the systemic de-emphasis of people with superior qualities in performance, but who are not in the "destined" glory line of fixed attributes. All Rome is superior. All non-Romans are inferior. If the inferiors prevail, hide it.
Fri means "peace" in the old high German, for example. See a 2003child-naming tome by a Teresa Norman, mythological references included at ://books.google.com/books?id=uSAlLaV6JIEC&pg=PA189&lpg=PA189&dq=frieda+mythology&source=bl&ots=9vZiUvwpTa&sig=WGsxy5tCS1G3s9gQCWmzuBYa0dc&hl=en&ei=yOoWTdKQL4WdlgejtbXsAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&sqi=2&ved=0CEwQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=frieda%20mythology&f=false
Ul as son, or kin. or offspring appears at the initial search blurb for the Caucasus Foundation, at http://www.kafkas.org.tr/english/analiz/karacaylarin%20tarihi2.html in a search for caucasus mythology frid ul, but with the click I could not find the ul definition. In Turkic, ul means water, see ://russiatrek.org/barnaul-city/name_origin/ so that Barnaul, the place, would mean wolf river; and Fridul would mean something else river (Frid what?) but we could find that little ul root in many places probably. With time, look up obscure language roots in names at another baby-naming site, ://www.mybaby.net.au/baby-name-full-detail/frid/43564/1/
Fred. Came by water.
- Difficulties with Slanted recorders; absence of recorders; oral tradition morphs (so does the writte
When the recorder is biased, what reliability is there. Is there such thing as objectivity from those who consider themselves superior. Is there much twisting for power purposes, in antiquity as well as now, to shape perception of victor and victim, or to use highly colored words to dismiss a worthy adversary out of hand.
Osterholm site: Osterholm does not mention Sigge, as far as we see so far. Is that significant? What old stories do they leave out and why? At least mention the name and then discredit it if you must, but deal with it. Leaving it out leaves us wondering what else is not dealt with.
3. Fast forward to people's genealogy sites online. Details as FN 3
These cite only "the old stories" and repeating each other in their haste to show actual bloodline to Sigge Fridulsson (two s's). Some spell it as Fridulson. What old stories? Where? Show us the Swedish and we can do a rough translation.
Genealogy sites: A morass of mutual back-scratching. See one summarized at FN 3.
The main Sigge fan club: people doing their own genealogies and repeating each other in touting Sigge back there.: A search for Sigge in those sites is fun, but the claimants leave no trail. What is the source other than "the old stories." Their accounts of the birthdate for Sigge are several hundred years "off" (several hundred years later) from those of the 1844 Fryxell The History of Sweden, see below. Who is right? We tend to trust the published historian. Even see somebody who claims Elvis as a descendant. Is that necessary?
Put Saga and culture together. Theory presented: The Aes (Asar, Asa, Asgard) and the Vanir people as well-- and find the idea that Odin or its similar sounding equivalent (research the Caucasus?) itself may be a "hereditary title" for King among those people; concept brought North. Sigge: emerging as a real person perhaps, but with a particular rank, a title, that coincided with concepts in the North and the title superseded the name. And time's fog then took over. Follow the rewriting of tales to suit the teller at this site that has an agenda, ://idrisi.narod.ru/volvewitch.htm/ People who call Charlemagne "the Vatican's warlord" as occurs there may differ substantially in world view from traditional we-are-chosen Christians, but read the site anyway. Opposing fervors can lead to new vieiwpoints.
Sigge Fridulfson -- where did the name come from anyway? The Caucasus would not have had the same naming culture of son of or daughter of, would it? Legend of Sigge Fridulfson. Too bad it has a contemporary less serious sound -- Ziggy Fridulson. Nerd. Ziggy. Cartoon. Anybody named Sigmund: dear Ziggy. Oh, dear. But the point remains: a name defines a person. Drop the name, and the role merges more easily into the desired cubbyholes of the teller. Tracking legend. Do multiple viewpoints ever converge.
FN 1 FRYXELL - HISTORY OF SWEDEN - Fridulfson
We first found Sigge Fridulfson in an 1844 volume that includes three eras of Swedish history, beginning with the pre-Christian, and 100 BC group; then the Catholic beginning in 1061, and then the Lutheran after 1521 or so. But we could only access it indirectly: with an earlier search for later Kings, named Inge. Try a search for Sigge Fridulfson directly, even though he is discussed in the book, and we get nothing.
You try. See The History of Sweden by Anders Fryxell, a scholar and historian in Stockholm, at page 9 for Sigge named, and pages before and after for context and story. See
Because we cannot access that earliest era by a search for Sigge Fridulfson directly, this should be fair use to guide others; Chapter I discusses pre-Christian Sweden, a wild land, inhabitants wandering, hunting, small huts half beneath ground, no known regular government or any kings names, gods Odin and Thor worshiped. Greeks called this area "Thule". Romans called it "Scandinavia".
(separating out the sentences, making paragraphs, because each idea is important to us)"CHAPTER II [fair use portion, paragraphing and numbering added]ODIN'S ARRIVAL IN SWEDEN.
1. About a century before the birth of Christ, in a region to the north-east of the Black Sea, lived a people called the Asar, the name of whose chief was Sigge Fridulfson.
2. The Romans, at that time had subdued all the neighbouring nations, leaving the Asar no peace, when Sigge resolved to emigrate with his people to a new country further north.
3. The Asar at this time were more ingenious, and further advanced in all the arts than the rest of the northern nations.
4, Sigge, in particular, was remarkable for wisdom and prudence. He knew that Odin was worshipped by all the northern lands; he therefore commenced his wanderings with much solemnity, declaring himself to be Odin, and his chiefs the other Gods.
5. Thus he past through many countries, as Russia, Saxony and Westphalia, placing his sons everywhere as Kings. He stopped some time in Denmark, on the Island of Fyen, and founded there the town called Odinsee, bearing his name; but learning that there were large fruitful tracts to the north in Sweden, he left Denmark to his son Skold, who built a town called Leire in Seland, where his descendants reigned long under the name of Skoldungar.
6. Odin himself sailed up to Sweden, in which, at that time, reigned a King called Gylfe, the first whom history mentions. He received Odin with sacred honours, and opened his kingdom to him.
7. Odin proceeded to found a town on Lake Malar, which he called after his own name Sigtuna, or Sigge's Home. He made his own residence, and founded a temple there; but divided the neighbouring country among his chiefs whom he appointed to preside at the sacrifices, and to assist him in the administration of justice; these chiefs were termed Diar, and looked upon as Gods ; but Odin was considered as chief of all.
8. [original paragraph here] He was possessed of a handsome and majestic mien ; and when he sat at a feast with his friends, his presence gladdened all; but to his enemies he was cruel and terrific.
9. His eloquence was such, that whatever he said was alone thought to be true.
10. He introduced the art of poetry into the north, and was the first who there used the art of writing.
11. His letters were called Runor, and were carved in wood; the people believed he could work charms with them.
12. It is said that he understood another species of sorcery, called Seid, so that with a few syllables he could extinguish fire, quiet the sea, and change the wind.
13. He could even let his body he as dead, while his soul in the shape of a bird, a fish or some other animal, carried his messages all round the earth.
[see http://www.osterholm.info/swedes.html, ancestral roots in Trojans]14. He had a ship called Skidbladner which could be folded together like a sheet of paper, and had fair wind in whatever direction he pleased, which probably signifies that he was the first in the North who used sails, and understood tacking in contrary wind.
...................................................................................................15. His men rushed forward in combat with great strength and impetuosity, using no defensive armour, whence they were called Berserks, or Mail-less, and such an attack was called Berserkagang.
FN 2 FRENCH ARCHIVE - Fridulson, not Fridulfson. The missing f.
Go a google search for Sigge Fridulfson, and there is no mention of the first google book, the History of Sweden, but find instead a somewhat later but still old French text from something called Archive des missions scientifique et litteraire, by France's Commission of the same name, fair use from page 82: but there it is Sigge Fridulson
Internet translator translation: at/://babelfish.yahoo.com/translate_txt/ Enough to figure out the gist --
"All this qu' one knows, c' is qu' with deepest the d' a disproportionate antiquity, travellers and merchants come from the Caucasus went up the Volga and Dnieper to come to adulterate with the people of North; that them (îoths and the Swedes, driving back the Lapps (or another unknown race) in north, came s' to establish in midday of the peninsula; that later, and approximately a sjècle before J.C., the Adzes, from Gothic race, came s' to establish in the middle of their former compatriots, who accepted them with benevolence: their chief was Sigge Fridulson, which took the name d' Odin and based on the edges of Maelar the town of Sigtuna, religious and royal metropolis of the worship and the government qu' he wanted to establish."
Here is the French:
"Tout ce qu'on sait, c'est qu'au plus profond d'une antiquité démesurée, des voyageurs et des marchands venus du Caucase ont remonté le Volga et le Dnieper pour venir trafiquer avec les peuples du Nord; que les (îoths et les Suédois, refoulant les Lapons (ou une autre race inconnue) au nord, vinrent s'établir dans le midi de la péninsule; que plus tard, et environ un sjècle avant J. C., les Ases, de race gothique, vinrent s'établir au milieu de leurs anciens compatriotes, qui les reçurent avec bienveillance : leur chef était Sigge Fridulson, qui prit le nom d'Odin et fonda sur les bords du Maelar la ville de Sigtuna, métropole religieuse et royale du culte et du gouvernement qu'il voulait établir."
So: we are still left --
Sigge is well hidden. Why? Is it because there is no evidence? Then where did the name itself come from.
Unearth him, and see if you find him Caesar's equal, if not surpassing him. Sigge: originator of the Runes, leader of people, establisher of sub-kingdoms loyal to him, eloquent, wise, maker of wise laws, prudent and propaganda specialist: if people worship Odin, call yourself Odin and they will believe. Enough apparently did. A precursor of Fox.
FN 3. GERMAN source
FN 4 Outlines of Universal History: In three parts; with a copious index to each. 1867 or so. By Joseph J. Reid.
Outlines of Universal History 1867 at ://books.google.com/books?pg=PA127&lpg=PA127&dq=sigtuna%20history%20sigge&sig=dVK716GGJivhowodPnYAtXNsRR8&ei=3dgXTZ6xIIWdlgemtbXsAg&ct=result&sqi=2&id=St8-AAAAYAAJ&ots=Hk8WGyuWEl&output=text
- Look at the creation of the Runes, the wisdom and power of the man. Caesar, meet your match. Is that so?
- a. Reign of Grylle, east of the Don, near the Black Sea [same as Caucasus now or not? maybe not], time of Sigge setting out 70 BC according to this account
- e. Reign of Gylfi, in Sweden, when Sigge arrived
- f. Yngvi, son of Sigge, honored by Swedes in welcoming Sigge. See also y and z paragraphs
- h. Odin as chief deity of the Scythians
- n. Empire 50 BC
- q. Invented the Runes, a 16-letter FUTHARK
- cc. Saxons paid annual tribute to successor king in Denmark, son of Sigge, Skjold. Descendants of Skjold: Skjoldungians, para dd.
Section 1 -- our division for convenience only, to highlight the factual chronology laid out and make a comparison easier with other sources
"a. In the reign of Grylle (about B. C. 70), Sigge, the son of Fridulph, who had distinguished himself against the Romans in his country east of the Tan'a'is (or Don), near the Black Sea,
b. set out with his chief priests and a vast concourse of followers for the West.
c. Leaving his brothers to rule at Asgard, the capital of his ancestors, he traversed Russia, and entered Saxland (the southern shore of the Baltic), subduing all nations as he passed.
d. He then crossed the Baltic, and passed into the island of Funen, where he built a city, named after himself, Odensee [contemporary Odense, Denmark]. He next subdued Denmark and Sweden.
e. In the latter country reigned a prince, named Gylfi, who was so struck with admiration for him, that he paid him divine honors.
f. The Swedes came in crowds to do him homage, and, by common consent, bestowed the regal title and office upon his son, Yngve, and his posterity.
g. Sigge fixed his abode near Lake Logur (the Maelar Sea), and erected a splendid temple at Sigtuna for the new religion which he introduced, and which rapidly spread.
h. He either assumed the name of Odin, the supreme deity of the Scythians, probably giving himself out as the same personage as the ancient Odin ;
i. or, pretending to be the prophet or priest of that deity,
j. the ignorance of succeeding ages confounded him with the god, thus producing, out of the attributes of the one and the history of the other, a medley, out of which nothing very certain can be extracted.
k. He introduced new laws, also the customs of his own country, and established a supreme council or tribunal, composed of twelve pontiffs or judges,
l. whose duties were to watch over the public weal, to distribute justice, to preside over the new worship, and to preserve the religious and magical secrets which he intrusted (sic) to them.
m. This council held its sittings at Sigtuna (a city now destroyed, situate in the same province with Stockholm).
n. Odin was acknowledged as a sovereign and a god by all the petty princes of Sweden and Denmark, and firmly established his empire (B. C. 50), adding Norway to it, and bestowing the crown of that country on his son,
o. Seeming, whose descendents (sic) reigned for many generations. Odin, finding his end approaching through a lingering disease, put himself to death by giving himself nine wounds in the form of a circle with the point of a lance, in the presence of his friends, saying that he was going to join the gods in Asgard, where he would receive with honor all who should die bravely in battle.
p. His body was solemnly burnt at Sigtuna, conformably to a custom introduced by him.
q. He was a poet and a musician, and is said to have invented the Runic characters. This alphabet consisted of sixteen letters, arranged as follows: F, U, D (or TH), 0, R, K, H, N, I, A, S, T, B, L, M, V.
r. These Runes were distinguished at first as of four kinds, namely, bitter, favorable, victorious, and medicinal. The bitter were used to bring evil on enemies; the favorable, to avert misfortune ; the victorious, to procure conquest; the medicinal, to heal, to prevent shipwreck, to counteract poison, and to win a woman's love. They were written sometimes from right to left, sometimes from top to bottom and back again. The student will find an interesting account of the Runic alphabet in Bishop Percy's translation of Mallet's Northern Antiquities.
s. A summary of the religious doctrines which prevailed in the north of Europe has been already given in the columns devoted to Germany (pp. 48, 53, 57, 61).
Section 2 -- our section division for convenience only. Find here the 1867 authors' commentary, weight of contribution of Sigge Fridulfson
t. That a great leader, bearing the name of Odin, really achieved what is related of him in Sweden and Denmark, is tolerably certain.
u. Many marvellous exploits are said to have been accomplished by him through his skill in magic; but allowing for this belief, so natural among a barbarous people, it is clear that his superior intelligence and knowledge enabled him to overrun a vast tract of country, extending from the Don to the Northern Ocean, and to found a new religion, which endured for centuries, and prevailed among the northern German and the Scandinavian tribes so late as the 12th century A. D.
v. Some learned men have supposed him to have been also the founder of that system of hostile aggression on the Roman empire, which burst forth with such fury in the 2d, 3d, and 4th centuries A. C.
w. They suppose him to have been actuated mainly by hatred of the Romans, who had driven him out of his own country; and that his principal object in invading so many distant kingdoms, and there establishing his sanguinary doctrines, was to rouse the inhabitants of all nations against the Roman empire.
x. But there is no historical evidence of his having had such a design. Whatever may have been his ruling principle, he was a man who left a deep impression on his fellow-men, and became their guiding spirit for ages, as Zoroaster, Confucius, Budha, and Mohammed have done.
Section 3 -- our division for convenience in reference only, about the chronology after the death of Sigge Fridulfson
y. On the death of Odin his authority descended to his sons. Njord became the supreme chief; Balder became viceroy of the Angles; Heimdall, ruler of Scania; Skjold, ruler in Zealand and Denmark;
z. Frey (or Yngve Frey) became king of Sweden. From him sprang the dynasty of the Ynglings, the last king of which, being the 21st in descent from Frey, was Ingialld Illradi, who reigned in the beginning of the 7th century.
aa. These heroes were deified along with Odin's other children, Thor, Frigga, and Tyr.
bb. Njiird [who is Njiird? don't say it precursor of Nerd? get serious] died B. C. 20, and was succeeded by his son, Freyer Yngve, during whose reigns profound peace existed.
cc. In Denmark, Skjold greatly enlarged his dominions by subduing the Saxons, whom he subjected to an annual tribute. He was possessed of enormous strength and indomitable courage. He died B. C. 40, and was succeeded by Friedlief I., of whom we have nothing worthy of record. After a reign of 17 years he died, leaving his kingdom to Frode I., who enjoyed the reputation of unrivalled prowess as a warrior.
dd. It is said in Danish tradition that Frode [Frodo!] carried his victorious arms into Sweden, Germany, England, and Ireland. These expeditions were probahly (sic) nothing more than piratical incursions along the coasts of those countries. He compiled a civil and a military code of laws, of which he strictly enforced the observance. The descendents of Skjold (a Danish word, signifying "a shield",) were called, after him, Skjoldungians.
We stopped there.
FN 5 - The Westminster Review, 1845, Vols 43-33 at pages 190, 192, 197 ff -- ://books.google.com/books?id=RT6gAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA192&lpg=RA1-PA192&dq=sigge+fridulfson&source=bl&ots=uzhCSK1aGu&sig=jbz8dhXAISEIXqG08Ry9GryXP3I&hl=en&ei=Q48YTcvdNsqr8AaBp6z-DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=sigge%20fridulfson&f=false
Count Graberg de Hamso, scholar, antiquarian, vice-consul, literary gentleman. The section on Scandinavia begins at page 185. Sources cited: from 1822 and 1844 at page 185.
From page 190 ff (Summarizing and some quotes as shown. Concepts instead are bulleted)
This entire Footnote 5 is a preliminary series of notes and separated sections for purposes of going back and comparing more accurately the differences in the 19th Century sites. The quotation marks are not always consistent, but reflect a fast way to abbreviate and move along. A work in progress, and also designed to show how much information we just don't have time to put in our schools any more. Surely, however, the idea of an incarnation of deity, such as Sigge Fridulfson may have been "seen as" is worthy of a look, just as other religions have their "incarnations" -- who is to say. Thou sayest. What does that mean? That thee indeed said it, or that it is so.
SUSPEND ACCURACY HERE IN WHAT IS A QUOTE AND WHAT IS NOT -- GO BACK TO THE ORIGINAL PLEASE.
- When did Odin or Wodan, Sigge Fridulfson, moved into Scandinavia with his colonists. Sagas disagree. Greek and Roman writers of the 5-6th Centuries give little information, and Danish and Swedish sources as to any emigration of Goths coming north -- not much. The dates differ by as much as 500 years. Snorro Sturleson (Snorri in other sources) gives much truth to the Sagas amid the fable, so does Torfceus, and so doubt the existence of Sigge who is not featured in them.
- Count Graberg concludes that the Huns drove the Alani, a Gothic tribe, away from the Don and Volga Rivers, toward the Baltic.
- Migration was 4th Century according to these: Russian connection early. Graberg notes that the city of Novogorod, Nougard, like other places such as Holmgard and Gardarike, are Scandinavian names of Russia, and are probably all Gothic-origin words. Tradition says these were established by Sigge. This movement took place towards the end of the fourth century, and 500 years later, the Novogorodians needed a prince who was descended from Sigge (the dynasty of "Sigurlam" had become extinct) and so sent into Scandinavia for one, who would be thus allied by blood to their own rulers. Accordingly, one Rurik established there the Russian monarchy.
- Sigge: How did Sigge secure areas he conquered. Sigge "established his sons in the different countries through which he passed.: He then fixed himself in Scandinavia.
- How many were in his group. It is not clear. Check the "Edda" and find there a tradition that suggests that, but other chronicles speak of Sigge's "Diar" or subordinate chiefs. This concept would include persons skilled in poetry and scientific lore, more than as warriors or heroes.
- Sigge's qualities, character
"Sigge himself is universally represented as a man of extraordinary genius, commanding eloquence, and most persuasive powers. He seems to have gained such an ascendant over the minds of all the people with whom he came in contact, that it is not to be wondered at, if in those dark ages he acquired the reputation of being something more than human, and gave rise to the most exaggerated and fabulous reports."
" A transcendant genius," says Count Graberg, " who finds his advantage in playing the impostor in order to awe mankind, and wholiolds in his hands arms of all sorts, may make a simple, ignorant, and credulous people believe anything. It is enough to cast a glance over the life of the founder of Islamism, as well as those of the warrior legislators of antiquity and the middle ages, not to find anything extravagant in the relation of the Sagas on the subject of the prodigies performed by Odin, even the greatest men sometimes employ like means to arrive at the ends they propose themselves—fortunate, if the effects correspond as completely with their conceptions and hopes, as the reforms of Sigge in Scandinavia were crowned with success."
- Back to when did Sigge arrive in Sweden: Not before or during the time of Pompey, because Caesar and Tacitus both say no Asiatic colony penetrated north Europe. And there is an interval between Caesar and Tacitus. That puts the movement not before 370 AD. There was open communication between the Roman Empire and the north (never conquered, also Germania was never made part of the Roman Empire), and the Baltic amber trade was still prospering. The outer limit would be the 5th Century. By then, the Yngve Dynasty ruled Sweden; the Skiold ruled Denmark; and the Begdeg and Boldeg, sons of Sigge, ruled Saxony.
- Then: see the religion connection that we seem to have forgotten -- title of King, and proximity to a Deity idea
"Count Bjornstjerna, in his ' Theogony, .Philosophy, and Cosmogony of the Hindus,' takes the same view of Odin and Sigge Fridulfson as his countryman Count Graberg. " Odin, Wodin, Wodh, Bodh, were the names of the founders of the religion, not that of the personage who carried it to our coasts —the latter was, as we suppose, Sigge Fridulfson," he says. We cannot, however, agree with his derivation of the word Odin. Odin, he truly observes^ was pronounced in the older Saxon dialect Wodan. "In and An are terminations; the root is Od and Wod," he goes on to say. From this we must demur. We are quite satisfied that Odin was a generic title, given to many distinguished persons both in the east and in the countries where eastern modes of expression were adopted. But we have not the slightest hesitation in saying that O and Wo arc prefixes—dan or din the roots. Every Hebrew and Arabic scholar will, we doubt not, agree with us in such an assertion. Dan (br), or Din (b''']), from the root Dun (ban), see Gen. xlix., 16, implies the legislative character of a ruler. The same exists in the Arabic and Chaldaic, and we find don in the same sense in the old Punic. It forms a part of the name of many princes and rulers in the Oriental languages, and frequently in that of the Assyrian kings. We shall take Sardanapalus as an instance, and analyse its component syllables. Sardanapalus, or as sometimes written, Asardanapalus, with the a prefixed, as is common in these cognate languages, consists of three words, Sar, or Asar, Dan, and pal, with the Greek termination us. In like manner the O in Odin is a prefix to the original word Bin. Sar from "nx. fTvij or Tnin. the primary meaning of which is to contend—the second, to have the sovereignty —signifies a prince in his conquering character. Dan we have already stated to mean a prince in his character of a lawgiver. Pal, from t*bc, nbcoriiic (Gr. #»»X) signifies, primarily, separation, and secondly, to be illustrious or distinguished. We find Pala in the Sanscrit bearing the acceptation of Lord. So that we here trace a great similarity between the eastern languages. Sardanapalus will thus be rendered by " the illustrious conquering prince and law-giver ;" Odin, in the same way, will mean the judge or governor, and the names of his principal followers, the Asar, may have reference to their superior and almost divine powers rather than to their Asiatic origin.* The first Odin was probably only the personification of those great qualities which are held in the highest esteem by an illiterate people in the rude ages beyond the pale of history."
- Value of the Sagas. A good translation is a window into the area customs, social, intellectual state. It is hard enough to read the Sagas, and few read Swedish, so we need good translations -- this in praise of a Mr. Laing who is well acquainted with Danish (not Icelandic). Now what is "Aal's" translation? Laing used that. An occasional error does not disqualify the merit of the whole.
- On barbarism: " Barbarus hie ego sum, quia non intelligor illis."
"But the inhabitants of Scandinavia, whom Sigge found there, the lutes, cannot properly be called barbarous. They possessed a form of religion. They had a regular government, laws, and institutions. They believed in the immortality of the soul and a future life. Their recorded sentiments were noble and chivalrous. Their love of glory, contempt of death, personal valour, and sense of honour, would entitle them to be classed above the rank of savages and barbarians."
"He made no considerable, no radical alteration in their civil, moral, or political condition. His object was to consolidate the laws and institutions he found already in existence, by introducing a more ceremonious character into their form of worship—by cultivating among them a warlike and heroic spirit. Few legislators perhaps of ancient or modern times have so successfully displayed the rare talent of regenerating a nation without disturbing its customs and institutions. He was in the truest sense a reformer, without
causes as well as the dates of this vast movement are lost in the night of antiquity."
" The date of the inundation was nearly four hundred years after Christ. There have been more than one Odin—the name is generic and applied to many Eastern leaders (not conquerors, the word implying rather a civil governor than military commander)—and the causes and dates of this vast movement may be traced with tolerable exactitude."
- The Scalds performed some of the same functions in the earliest times of Scandinavian tradition. They probably did not figure much as warriors. If the authority of Ossian be admitted, they certainly existed in Scandinavia before the time of Odin. Lochlinis confessedly Scandinavian, or a part of it, and King Starno was of the order of Scalds. We think it probable that their duties were modified on the introduction of the Diars, or judges of Odin, who were an Asiatic institution.
- The first hearsay rule? King Olaf Tryggvesson used to say to them in his time (about the year 1,000), "You will not recount what you have heard, but what you have seen."
- "This looks as if they were then still more matter-of-fact persons, and that they no longer exerted their eloquence in recalling the glories of the past, but were the viva-voce historians of what was actually occurring before their eyes.***"
- "Christianity appears gradually to have banished the Scaldic language and mythology. Little is heard of them after the first half of the twelfth century. After its introduction the profession of the religion of Odin was often punished with death—and Mr. Laing accounts for the decay of that mythology and our want of information on it, by supposing that the Siga-relator or Sagascribe might not have thought it safe to go deep into Pagan doctrirtf s, customs, or observances. The language of the Scalds was soon obliterated by the learning of the monks who spoke and wrote in Latin. The former did not know the art of writing—spoke or sung extempore in prose, and their narratives were therefore more difficult to commit to memory than the rhymed verses of the monks, which were preserved on parchment and in written documents. From whatever cause, however, it is true that we glean but little information from these Sagas as to the mythology of the Northmen—which is the more extraordinary as Paganism flourished among them for five centuries after the Anglo-Saxons had embraced Christianity. Its Asiatic type, however, is clearly developed. Many of its ceremonies and traditions were purposely confused by the monks, who were obliged to give them new interpretations, lest the dogmas of the old religion, many of them too firmly rooted to be easily eradicated, should clash with their own Papistical observances. They went even farther than this. When the Eddaic myths had been collected in their present form, and Scalds and men of learning began to commit them to memory, in order to remove any religious influence they might have, they persuaded the people that they contained so many historic facts, which, however, it required considerable ingenuity to find the parallels to in real history. Rome and Troy were thus confounded—Asgaard and Byzantium—and the early Scandinavian mythology incorporated with that of Greece and Italy.
FN 6 GENEALOGY WONDERLAND
Somebody's claimed ancestry from Sigge Himself, but it has echoes of the History of Sweden chronology, but here Sigge is several centuries later than the 100 BC of the History of Sweden, dates more like the other 19th Century sources -- 375-500 AD. There are other areas of contrast. For this one, see ://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mgholler/Caden/a62.htm#i547458520; and search for other genealogy sites, including with spelling Fridulson, no f
Names to search:
- Bor Frithuwalk Scandinavia and Beltsa, parents of Odin First King
The claim is that this Odin, as the first King, was the son of one Bor Frithuwalk Scandinavia (last name apparently is Scandinavia) and Beltsa,
[Stop! Bor and Beltsa?? In a genealogy? Here is Beltsa, from the Icelandic skald, Snorri, in the Gylfaginning. That is the part of the old Edda about the Deception of Gylfi who ruled Sweden when Sigge arrived, and who went back to Asgard in disguise to find out how Sigge could do all he was doing, and describing how the cow Audumla nurtured the Giants, and nurtured herself by ice blocks, this from the part of the Edda, Gylfaginning at ://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/pre/pre04.htm -- boldface supplied"She licked the ice-blocks, which were salty; and the first day that she licked the blocks, there came forth from the blocks in the evening a man's hair; the second day, a man's head; the third day the whole man was there. He is named Búri: he was fair of feature, great and mighty. He begat a son called Borr, who wedded the woman named Bestla, daughter of Bölthorn the giant; and they had three sons: one was Odin, the second Vili, the third Vé. And this is my belief, that he, Odin, with his brothers, must be ruler of heaven and earth; we hold that he must be so called; so is that man called whom we know to be mightiest and most worthy of honor, and ye do well to let him be so called."]
and born in 210 AD in Asgard, Asia, or perhaps Byzantium, and died at Lake Malaren, Uppsala, Sweden. It states that another name for Odin was Sigge Fridulfsson. The site says that Sigge, as did other kings in Saxon lands, and Norwegian and Danes, claim descent fro Odin. Sigge was first? And took the name Odin so he would be worshipped.
Odin's roots: A places called Asgard, that is also where, in myth, ghe gods live. Danish historian Saxo, from the 1100's says Asgard is Byzantium (we also found linguistic roots with the name of the people who moved north, and Asgard, Asa, Asars, Asia, etc) is said to have come from Asgard, the legendary home of the gods. (Interestingly, the twelth-century Danish historian Saxo identifies Asgard with Byzantium.) This hombre Odin allegedly founded the Kingdom of the Svear, we would say at Sigtuna and not Upsala, but the site says Uppsala (one p two p's same) and that is indeed nearby, and near Stockholm.
Now, fair use quote from the geneology, because the story is nicely told:
"King Odin, we are told, had five sons. They reigned over various parts of Scandinavia, and at least two of them ruled in Denmark. (One must remember that Denmark at that time included Skane. Although this region has belonged to Sweden in modern times, it was Danish from legendary through medieval times.) We shall not endeavor to mention all the legendary kings of Denmark, but rather highlight some of the more famous and interesting heroes of the sagas.
The Danish kings, like those of Norway and Sweden, did not always follow a direct line of succession from father to son. But they were required to be of noble blood, and they were elected by a gathering of nobles known as the "Thing". [Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev]"
He married Frigg, Friege, Frea, a Saxon Queen born in Asgard (but Asgard is in the Caucasus, according to our story line, but that may need correcting), but either way, some would deny that kind of royalty system among the decentralized Saxons of Europe back then. The site calls her a princess of Britain, marriage about 236. But Saxons did not invade Britain in substantial numbers until after the Roman Empire fell, is that so, so these dates are questionable -- still, who's to say.
with the Cadwalladers, a notable family, but the stretch is too much.