Tuesday, March 04, 2014

Aborigines - Outstanding Individuals, in a Timeline of Ongoing Defeat. Indigenous vs Internal Colonialism, Economic Fundamentalism; Dehumanize and Exploit

Aborigine Timeline.
Australia
Aborigines.  Outstanding Individuals In a Timeline of Ongoing Defeat
Timeline: Aborigine Exploitation, Violence.
Who rose above?
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Updates: 
  • 2014.  National Geographic June 2013:  Aboriginals resided in Australia for 50,000 years on their own, as 100% of the population self-sustaining in the environment.  Now, Aboriginals are reduced to some 3% of the total population, after invasion and settlement by other racial-ethnic groups. See http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/06/aboriginal-australians/
The protest list now is topped by sovereignty. Australia Day marks the arrival of the first British colonists in 1788, and is not marked with veneration by the aboriginals already there. The Opposition Leader, Tony Abbott, had suggested it was time for the tent city to move on, adding to the anger.
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We now know definitively that Aborigines were first in time. See (update) DNA sample, article Aborigines: The First Out of Africa, The First in Asia and Australia,
http://www.theatlantic.com/life/archive/2011/09/aborigines-the-first-out-of-africa-the-first-in-asia-and-australia/245392/?google_editors_picks=true. Yet ancient lineage has been no help in terms of "advancement" as we normally measure it.  Is our measure wrong? Theirs is the longest continuous culture on earth, is that so.  Respect it, and its context. Is some form of Geographic Determinism back as a factor.  If so, look what adverse conditions this group survived.

And now did these ancestors get to Australia from Africa?   Was there a land bridge? Debate. The "first out of africa" site says they went by sea, see article and now a video at http://img.ibtimes.com/www/articles/20110924/219309_hair-shows-aborigine-ancestors-were-first-out-of-africa-australia.htm.  But boats for distance use did not come into being until very recently, like 5000 BC, see In a Sunburned Country, source list in section III, below. And there are no ape remains in Australia.  The humans there could not have conducted their own evolution from their own apes.
Here: 
I.   Timeline, with references to the source list in section III
II.  Aboriginals, Individuals;  Peoples
II.  Discussion, source list
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I.  Composite iTimeline:
The Aborigine of Australia
Tasmania
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A.  Prehistory, Global look at humana
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7,000,000 BCE (!) Hominid-type skull found, Bega district, New South Wales, see Aboriginal History Timeline
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950,000 BCE.  Homo Erectus, the first human found in France, dating from 950,000 BC.  
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350,000 BCE.  Homo Neanderthalensis, as proto-traits, date from 350,000 BC; and "full-blown" by 135,000 BC or so. http://www.timelineindex.com/content/select/142/45,142
120,000 BCE    Evidence of burning to clear land near Canberra, http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline.html
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70,000-68,000  BCE    Aborigines said to "immigrate" to Australia, but no indication how they got there; and no discussion of the finds noted above:
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56-68,000 BCE    Three human remains found, near Sydney. Rock shelters also used in this time by people, see http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline.html
 http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline.html
  • .See the overall Aboriginal History Timeline site, see II, for details ongoing about human finds, breadmaking, uses of decorative ochre, spiritual and creative life, and technology enabling survival in harsh land, tool artifacts, beads.  Still, how did they get there?  Are they evolved from the hominids?
  • But the author of In a Sunburned Country, by Bill Bryson, Random House 2000 suggests, since there were no apes, how did the hominids get there?  Does absence of ape mean no evolution, we ask??
  • There was no land bridge, we understand, and boats did not come in until far later. See http://www.clickforaustralia.com/History.htm %20Or. Or was the migration in 50,000 BCE.  Aborigines descend from "remote Asian ancestors of the current Australian Aboriginal People" who first arrived in Australia some 50,000 years ago.  http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/places-timelines/05-australia-history-timeline.htm
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  • ISSUES -- THE HUMAN DISPERSAL ISSUE

Note all the information about human and humanoid movements in European-MidEast, South America. Where is the Aborigine even mentioned?

Ask again, how did they get to Australia [did they indeed come out of Africa?] 50,000 BC if boats were not in long-distance use until 5,000 BC.
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This question is asked in In a Sunburned Country, at Ch 13 p 185ff..  He cites first occupants at 45,000 to 60,000 BCE.  A woman's skeleton was found and first dated at 23,000 BCE; other finds pushed back the date earlier. Woman.  Than means human. Homo sapiens. See also Principles of Human Evolution, by Roger Lewin, http://books.google.com/books/about/Principles_of_human_evolution.html?id=sv78WGFFkOgC

How did they get there thousands of years before any other humans could do it anywhere else.
Q.  Could the first human occupants have walked?  
A.  No.  Australia has always been an island. But is that view uncontested?
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Q. Could the first human occupants have evolved from apes?  
A.  No, no ape creatures have been found.
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Q.  Could the first human occupants have arrived by sea, closest to land being a distance of some 60 miles across the water, at Timor, Indonesian Archipelago? 
A.   Not likely.  A simple lost fishing craft would not have held enough people to populate a colony; and imagining repeated trips or a big flotilla, all arriving at the same place in order to begin their populating as a group, is not reasonably imaginable unless a vast amount of time is involved, and luck, and generations. It takes 25 people to start a sustaining colony, says Mr. Bryson at page 186. Is he right?
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Q.  Could the first human occupants have arrived by spontaneous creation by the Creator?
A.  Sure.  Creationists, to your travel agents.  Your proof is here. No evolution to cloud the issue.
  • ISSUES:  VALUING THE CONTINUOUSLY MAINTAINED CULTURE - Oldest continuous culture in the world is the Aborigine? Wonderful.

Assume, then, that the Aborigines had Australia to themselves, no other humans, spread over it, and they were free and unfettered to develop.d customs to enable survival in all its differing climes.  Find a positive account at http://library.thinkquest.org/28994/abhistory.html

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35,000 BCE   Aborigines reach Tasmania, http://www.clickforaustralia.com/History.htm
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22,000 BCE (a fast forward, see http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline.html .  Aboriginal use of ground-edge tools - axes.  Aborigines mine flint, and make markings like grooves on cave walls. Relationship:  art, work. 
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Dating:  The Aboriginal Timeline site dates as "22,000 years ago" -- since there is only 2000 or so years to the beginning of the Common Era calendar, we are not adjusting the 22,000 years ago to 19,000 BCE.
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The ground-edge ax:  This puts the Aborigine in the forefront of human tool-making in the world, says site, is that so? Forefront of technology? 
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Ice Age:           About 10% of Tasmania is under a glacier
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18,000 BCE      Aboriginals harvest grain seeds, grind, roast, or eat whole. http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline.html. Cave art shows extinct animals.
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16,000 BCE      Hearths, stone tools, bone tools
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13,000 BCE     Land bridge between Tasmania and Asia is flooded as the glaciers melt
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10,000 BCE    Boomerangs!  Used to hunt waterfowl. http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline.html
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B.  Ancient History
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8000 BCE        Aboriginal belief connected to the Rainbow Serpent.  This makes this belief the oldest continuous belief in the world! And the dingo arrives. See Aboriginal History timeline.
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5,000 BCE    Distance boating.  See how late in time:  Boats. Southeast Asians begin boat travel, long-distance http://www.well.com/~mareev/portal/prehistory/ancient_prehistory_timeline5.html.  Pacific islands are settled, see http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline.html
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Copper Age begins in the Middle East and Caucasus. 
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4,000 BCE. Basques arrive in Europe http://www.well.com/~mareev/portal/prehistory/ancient_prehistory_timeline5.html  Another of all our interesting human groups. Who?  Where from? Recall sites suggesting Middle East.  Need to check. DNA?
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2200 BCE.  Evidence of knowledge of Atlantic ocean.  How? "Oldest chart of the Atlantic Ocean recorded at petroglyphs of Kercado, Brittany." http://www.well.com/~mareev/portal/prehistory/ancient_prehistory_timeline6.html
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 C.  History ACE
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Numerous explorations, see White oriented site at http://www.clickforaustralia.com/History.htm  Indonesia, China, trade.  See timeline of early arrivals, departures, at the Aboriginal oriented site at  http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-pre-cook.html
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Early explorers:  saw Aboriginal shell mounds, huge, covering perhaps half an acre, inland and uphill, away from the beach where the shells would have been found, some 33,000 cubic meters of shells at one location, and it took perhaps 800 years to make it. Sunburned at p.188-89.  These are not mentioned at the Aborigine History Timeline.
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Then:
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1770            Captain James Cook lands and claims land for England.  Some 300,000 Aboriginals may have resided in Australia at the time, Sunburned at p. 189. This number is far higher at Aboriginal History Timeline:  750,000 to 1,000,000
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D.  The West Arrives
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  Systematic or Incidental Decimation of Aborigines by Settlers.  Economic Determinism:
Compare to Similar Treatment, Mindset of Colonialism
re Native Americans, Blacks in and from Africa, South American indigenous
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Some 20,000 Aboriginals are intentionally killed in the next 150 years, Sunburned at p.191.

This does include some "justifiable" circumstances, such as self-defense, battles, but even those come under the guise of "punitive expeditions" of Whites against groups, in retribution for a malfeasance of an individual Aboriginal.
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Some 200,000 Aboriginals die of disease in the next 150 years, Sunburned at p. 191. Diseases - no resistance -  include smallpox, syphilis, pleurisy, influenza, In a Sunburned Country, by Bill Bryson, see http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/b/bryson-sunburned.html: cited here as Sunburned, at p.190
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1792            Smallpox epidemic, see http://bovination.com/cbs/australianAboriginalHistory.jsp

Europeans' view:  Subhuman; if not that, then "inconsequential." Aboriginals lived in small tribes, speaking different languages, no central authority.
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 Worldview:  no word for yesterday or tomorrow, were unclothed, no house-building, or other permanent structures, no planting crops, no herding, no pottery, no "property", Sunburned at p. 188, no concepts of "negotiation" or "treaty", Sunburned at 188-89, but content. 
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Captain Cook wrote that they live in tranquility, have what they need from their surroundings, no need to part with what they have or want more, and probably happier than "we" Europeans. We should be so lucky.
1793-1795    Aboriginals show vast nativation and distance sailing skills, see http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-early-white.html
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1804            Hobart Town established, Tasmania.  See it now at http://www.startribune.com/lifestyle/travel/124484593.html
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1805            Killing, torturing of Aborigines not a crime. Acting judge advocate for New South Wales declared that Aboriginals could be tracked down and punished as may be merited, rather than clog the courts with them, since they had neither the discipline nor mental capacity for court proceedings.  Sunburned at p. 190.  Author asks:  invitation to genocide?
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Affirmation of killing, see Cultural Survival organization at  http://www.culturalsurvival.org/australia?gclid=CKLN9ryz0akCFRE95QodnF3YMA
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More affirmation of killing, see http://bovination.com/cbs/australianAboriginalHistory.jsp
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1810           Briton (Scots) Lachlan Macquarie is installed as governor, New South Wales. 
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Macquarie, however, also set up schools for Aboriginal children, removing them from their families in order to educate them in western ways and give them a "better" life?; ultimately so opposed by the Aborigines that the schools closed. http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-early-white.html 
(herein Aboriginal History Timeline)
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1816           Macquarie restricts movement of Aboriginals, approves killing of "offenders" see Aboriginal History Timeline.

 At some point in the Hawkesbury area does he give permission for soldiers to kill Aborigines found in groups of more than 6, regardless of activities or age or gender? Sunburned at p.190.  Aboriginal History Timeline says, after other incidents of killing, that the restriction was on groups of 6 loitering near farms. 
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1822           Smallpox epidemic, see http://bovination.com/cbs/australianAboriginalHistory.jsp
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1833            Forced white immigration.  Port Arthur is set up as penal colony for English prisoners from the jails
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1838            Slaughter at Waterloo Creek, see Sunburned at 195.  Two hundred Aborigines killed.  Noone was punished.  Nobody even raised the issue.  Many more instances, see site at p.195, too many to list or know.
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1838             Slaughter at Myall Creek, see Sunburned at p. 191.  Somebody drove off livestock from the farm of Henry Dangar.  Off goes the vigilante or posse group. 

They find Aboriginals peacefully camped.  The pursuers rope them together -- some 28 people, men, women, children -- in a big ball and ride them around for hours, then kill them with rifles and swords. Governor George Gipps took note of a journalist. Edward Smith Hall, complaining about the behavior (heretofore nobody paid attention), and held a trial.  One of the defendants said he did not realize it was illegal to kill Aboriginals. The jury acquitted. There was a second trial: Seven of the pursuers were found guilty and hanged.
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But killing of Aboriginals, says Sunburned, just went underground; and not bragged about openly, Sunburned at p. 194. And questionably was supported in legal proceedings, but perhaps that was justice -- See 1928.  There is no memorial at Myall. Sunburned at p.192.  Corroboration of Myall massacre:  Aboriginal History Timeline 1838
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1838            Offer Aboriginals poisoned food.  Account by one Pilger in a mid 1800's government report from Queensland, Sunburned at p. 190: " 'The niggers [were given] ... something really startling to keep them quiet ... the rations contained about as much strychnine as anything and not one of the mob escaped.' " The mob was about 100 "unarmed men, women, and children."  Sunburned at p.191.  Story of poisoning corroborated at Aboriginal History Timeline 1838
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1839            Visitor "Melville" wrote a history of Tasmania (says Sunburned at p.190) and include the story of a kangaroo hunt where one of the respectable hunters noticed a huddled human (aboriginal) behind a tree, and went up and shot him dead.
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In general:    Food scarcity.  Aboriginals may kill sheep for food, then the settlers would send out punitive excursions to kill groups of Aboriginals, see http://bovination.com/cbs/australianAboriginalHistory.jsp
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1851             Gold Rush in Bathurst
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Year?           Lines in South Land (book not in our library, quoting from Sunburned at p.190) lays out examples of settler cruelty: butcher Aboriginals for dog food, force an Aboriginal woman to witness the killing of her husband by decapitation, then forcing her to wear the head around her neck, chase an Aboriginal woman up a tree and shoot at her, she stuffs leaves into the rifle holes until she finally is killed and falls back down.
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1853             Last prisoners arrive for settlement
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1873            Ayers Rock found by Europeans (now Uhuru)
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1876             The last true full-blooded (says site) Tasmanian aboriginal dies: one Truganini (a woman)
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1886             Fruits of cross-fertilization.  Half-castes are excluded from definition of Aborigine, thus can no longer live on protected Aborigine "reservations" (missions and reserves) and so half the population has to leave. See Aboriginal History Timeline 1886
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1888             Maybe 80,000 Aboriginals left across all of Australia.  Aboriginal History Timeline for year 1888.  Reduction by some 220,000 (from which date?)
1900             Aboriginals reduced in number to some 50,000-60,000, Sunburned at p. 189.  Not all intentional wrongful killing, of course. Disease also.
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1901             Commonwealth of Australia formed. Aborigines not allowed to vote, not considered "Australians" see http://bovination.com/cbs/australianAboriginalHistory.jsp
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1914-1918   Australian military fight in WWI ANZAC (Australia-NewZealand Army Corps?).  Aboriginal soldiers fight at Gallipoli, see Aboriginal History Timeline 1914
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1920            Aboriginal population in Australia down to some 60-70,000. Aboriginal History Timeline
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1928            Somebody killed a white dingo hunter, Fred Brooks, at Alice Springs. Whites hunted down and killed 17-70 (broad range) Aboriginals.  Judge found that was within the law, perhaps so.  This is said to be in 1926, and that an entire village was slaughtered in reprisal, see http://bovination.com/cbs/australianAboriginalHistory.jsp
See also Aboriginal History Timeline 1928
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1929             Aboriginal Lynch Cooper named World Professional Sprint Champion. See Aboriginal History Timeline
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1930-60        "The Stolen Generation: -  Child Removal program.  Take Aboriginal children from their families and raise them by Whites. http://bovination.com/cbs/australianAboriginalHistory.jsp.  
See also Stolen Generations Timeline at http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/politics/stolen-generations-timeline.html
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1939              Aboriginals are not citizens in Australia, but are formally enlisted in the armed forces (like US with its non-citizen soldiers) and serve in Europe, Pacific, Middle East, New Guinea, see Aboriginal History Timeline 1939         
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1940               99% of Australia's population is now White, Aboriginal History Timeline 1940
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1948              Melbourne's first Moomba Festival. Whites asked for suggestions for the name, Aborigines said this meant getting together and having fun, but it really meant (still in use and still does), 'Up your bum.'  Aboriginal History Timeline 1948
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Fast forward
Past usual events of a growing country, increasing wealth
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1971             First Aboriginal member of parliament, Neville Bonner
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1981            Asian immigration increases to Australia
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1993            Legal rights timeline:  See http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-calendar.html
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2011            Immigration policy focuses on "desirable" immigrants, targets certain skills, fosters arrival of those already educated.  None of this helps the Aborigine, as we see so far.  Economic colonialism no change?  See http://www.migrationexpert.com/australia/visa/australian_immigration_news.asp 
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II.  Aboriginals.  Individuals and Peoples, 
whether by tribe or larger group; and by date of event name.
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A.  Definitions.
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Aboriginal is a 17th Century word meaning first, or earliest, see http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=aboriginal. In the 1790's, it was used as a noun.  In the 1820's, the term came to be applied specifically to the first people in Australia, before "discovery." The groups we call Aboriginal do or did not use that term for themselves.  They were groups or bands with differing languages and different area geographic environments, occupying their own territories historically, and not using a single word for themselves.  See http://www.crystalinks.com/aboriginals.html
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Aboriginal does not include Maori of New Zealand, Polynesian heritage, recent (1300's).
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Find details of individuals and groups of Aboriginals at Aboriginal History Timeline http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-early-white.html.  The listing and details demonstrate the extensive resistance of the Aborigine to decimation of their population and culture, and a range of talent as broad as any group anywhere (it seems to us). Resourceful, brilliant survival adaptations to environment (see In a Sunburned Land book cite), a spirituality of balance, not exploitation.
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Focus.  This listing (and this site) does not explore individuals or history of the Maori of New Zealand. We had looked for Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, brilliant soprano, to include her; and found that her heritage is Maori.
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In time, we may research these on our own. Until then, please visit the Aboriginal History Timeline site for information, year by year.
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B. Choose a name, look it up, with respect:

1788    Arabanoo
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1789    Benelong and Colebee
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1790    Yemmarrawanie
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1791    Bon-Del
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1793    Gnung-a-Gnung-a Murremurgan ("Collins")
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1795    "Tom Rowley"
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1796    Pemulwuy
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1804    Darug People
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1814    Koori People (see also Koorie in 1830)
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1816    Carnabyagal
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1822    Windradyne;  Wiradjuri People (or place?)
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1830    Bungaree
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1831    Yagan
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1835    Dunghutti People
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1836    Kaurna People
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1838    Jagera People
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1843    Multuggerah
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1876    Truganini (a woman)
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1890    Jandamarra
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1928    Anthony Martin Fernando
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1929    Lynch Cooper
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1930    Yorta Yorta People; William Cooper
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1937     William Ferguson
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1950     Gwoya Jungarai; Walpiri People
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1963     Yolngu
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1965     Pintubi People; Frank Ganngu; Elsie Darbuma
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1966     Gurindji People, see also 1967, 1975
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1966     Charles Perkins, Margaret Valadian
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1968     Albert Namatjira; Lionel Rose
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1971     Harold Thomas; Luritja People (or place?); Evonne Cawley; Gumatj People (or place?), Millrrpum, Larrakia People, Neville Bonner (see also 1972, 1979, 2008), Evonne Goolagong,
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1977     Isobel Coe
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1978     Pat O'Shane, Galarrawuy Yunupingu, Yoingu People
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1980     Jim Hagan
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1981     Pitjantjatjara People
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1982     Joe Pat, Mark Ella, Eddie Mabo (see also 1992), Ken Colbung,
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1984     Lowitja O'Donaghue (see also 2011)
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1992     Mandawuy Yunupingu, Yothu Yindi People
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1993     Wik People (see wiki-wiki Hawaiian?? wikipedia? do the Wik hold copyright to their name? somebody check the Wik); see also 1996, 1997
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1995      Thayorre People
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1996      Jawoyne People, Robert Bellear ("Bob")
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1998      Cathy Freeman, see also 2000
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2001     Aden Ridgeway
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2003     Elaine George
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2004     Mulrunji Doomadgee, Casey Donovan, Michael Long
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2007     Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarra, Bruce Trevorrow, Vicki Roach, John Howard, Marion Scrymgour
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2008      ________Ward (see also 2010), Ngaanyatjarra People, Patrick Dodson, Nathan Jawai,
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2009     Mick Dodson, Anthony Mundine, Ampilatwatja People, Tom Calma,
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2010     Ruby Hunter, Charles Dixon ("Chicka"), Megan Davis, Michael Leslie, Samantha Harris, Timana Tahu, Ken Wyatt, Noongar People,
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2011     Helen Mary Cooper, Yindjibarndi People, Jodi Brown, Butchullah People, Les Malezer

III.  Discussion; Source List

The Aborigine Experience; the Indigenous Experience.
Dehumanization as Economic Tool of the Conqueror
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Western Culture Trods Australia Underfoot; Yet They Survive, Excel In Their Culture.  Western religious institutions also dehumanized "nonbelievers" in forcing conversions, conducting crusades against other branches of Christianity as well as Islam, is that so? 
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Free Market Individualism, Economic Fundamentalism, and Disregard of Inconvenient Humans.
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The Aboriginal

Overview Section III:
A. Sources and overview: Free market mindset, impact on value of humans. What the loss? What the cost.
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B. Human striving, defeats, excellence, persistence. A memorial and contemporary listing of Aborigine individuals in history. Check their contribution, or role, or reason for demise, in the timeline of events and persons at http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-early-white.html
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A.  Sources and overview: Free market mindset, impact on value of humans.
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Is lack of economic acquisition the only model of success in a culture.
Aborigines: successful instead in survival with continuity of culture.
Does that continuity constitute a human luxury, producing more individual satisfaction, but possible only as a result of isolation, lack of belligerent newcomers, until now?
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How can non-acquisitive cultures defend against being acquired.
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Note: This topic focuses on the Aborigine of Australia.
The Maori of New Zealand are not Aboriginal, we understand
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A. Several sources to read at the outset: Aborigines in Australia.
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1. In a Sunburned Country, by Bill Bryson, see http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/b/bryson-sunburned.html (herein "Sunburned"); and
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2. Taming the Great South Land, by William J. Lines, see http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/6934869?q=Northern+Territories&c=music (herein: "South Land")
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3. Aboriginal History Timeline, comprehensive compendia of Aborigine-focused events at http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-early-white.html (herein Aboriginal History Timeline). Use that for specific time periods, persons.
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4. History Timeline of Australia: Review a White-focused overview of history at http://www.clickforaustralia.com/History2.htm.(herein History of Australia)
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B. Our focus
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Find examples of western cultural expansion, and by means of attitude of disregard of others, combined with militaristic capability and interest. We take that expansion by force process for granted. Get out of my way, says western culture on the move.

Self-interest, the justification of "American Exceptionalism" used for this framework of imposition, is becoming ever more prominent again in United States politics. The growth of toxic individualism, that Great Britain also fostered in its colonial activities, and other Powers That Succeeded economically and militarily over others through the ages shared the view. Take what you can.

What was lost, and at what cost. See See the detailed timeline of a "typical" Aboriginal life at http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/people/aboriginal-statistic-timeline.html
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C. Preliminary examples
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The aboriginals in History of Australia (lower case "a") are mentioned as arriving by sea to Australia from Asia in about 60,000 BCE, and thriving as nomadic hunters across the land. They are not mentioned thereafter. In the timeline at the site, they are finally listed very late, in 1971, when there was an aboriginal member of parliament, Neville Bonner; and in 1876 when the last Tasmanian full-blooded aboriginal, Truganini, died; and at the 70,000-35,000 BCE time slot when they arrived. The process of disregard can be seen as internal colonialism, economic fundamentalism where only economic status "counts." See the reach of economic fundamentalism, free market fundamentalism, at http://martinlutherstove.blogspot.com/2011/06/religion-of-economic-fundamentalism-has.html
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To further illustrate the impact of economic supremacism taking over individual thinking (the next step, according to Tocqueville, see site), we put together a combination timeline (selective), highlighting and crossreferencing from various sources and using as the first basic framework the History Timeline for Australia at http://www.clickforaustralia.com/History.htm.
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D. Suspect timelines, even this one.
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Everybody's timeline serves an agenda, including ours: To connect broader western me-first colonialism mindsets to its present incarnation, as anticipated also by Alexis de Tocqueville. Individualism, at first rugged, becomes ruinous.
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Is it too late to stop the economic supremacism that has such momentum now. Can a devalued group be revalued by a process of information. Probably not. The timeline here is an overview, not comprehensive; unidentified sources are from Sunburned. For details, not quite year by year, but good as a reference corroboration for the broader topics here, see dates and names and places at Aboriginal History Timeline. That site breaks down the timelines of different eras, so look for the click connections to prehistory, ancient history, pre-Cook, and then the more modern. Early White is at http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-early-white.html (herein Aboriginal History Timeline)




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